Poverty, population growth, natural disasters and war are combining to create demand for more than a billion homes, according to the Chilean architect.
But architects are unable to overcome the challenges posed by politics, economics and building codes to deliver viable solutions, he said.
“It would be great, with more than one million architects in the world, that more solutions and more proposals try to address the issue,” Aravena told Dezeen.
“But the constraints are not just budget constraints – the building logic, the political framework, and the policies, are part of the equation and we’re not well trained for that,” he said. “We’re never taught the right thing at university.”
Aravena, 48, was speaking to Dezeen ahead of being named the recipient of this year’s Pritzker Prize, architecture’s equivalent to the Nobel prize. In its citation, the Pritzker jury described him as the leader of a new generation of socially minded architects.
Aravena graduated from the Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago in 1992 and set up his own studio two years later, designing a string of buildings for his alma mater.
In 2000 he became a visiting professor at Harvard, and helped create architectural “do tank” Elemental in partnership with his former university and Chilean oil company COPEC.
Elemental is a champion of “participatory design” – a form of in-depth community consultation. According to Aravena, the firm starts its projects “as far away from architecture as possible”.
“[Some] architects come with the question in advance. We are trained to have a kind of selective listening. We listen to what we want to listen to,” said Aravena. “The jargon, the way we talk about our issues, nobody except an architect understands.”
“What we’re trying to do by asking people to participate is envision what is the question, not what is the answer. There’s nothing worse than answering the wrong questions well.”
Although Elemental also does masterplanning and private work, it is most famous for its “half a good house” developments. Using limited government subsidies, the firm builds the essential half of a decent-size family home. Residents can then fill in the void over time according to their own needs and financial situation.
The first of these, Quinta Monroy in Iquique, Chile, was completed in 2004 at a cost of $ 7,500 per unit. The project helped Aravena win the Silver Lion at the 2008 Venice Architecture Biennale.
“At the time, social housing was the least cool thing to do,” said Aravena. “I didn’t know what a subsidy was.”
Elemental has now delivered more than 2,500 of these units, adapted for different budgets and locations. It even has a TV advert aimed at attracting future clients.
Elemental’s TV advert for their “half a good house” developments aims at attracting future clients
The low cost of the housing means that Aravena can build publicly funded developments on expensive inner-city land, giving poorer residents access to better schools and transport links.
But Aravena said building regulations and politics were preventing the evolution of similar solutions for problems like Europe’s mass influx of refugees – a subject that is at the core of his curation of this year’s Venice Architecture Biennale.
“There’s [going to be] a billion people on the planet that will be needing housing,” said Aravena. “Unless we follow the incremental approach to tackle scarcity of means, we won’t solve this problem.”
Read the edited transcript from our interview with Alejandro Aravena:
Anna Winston: When did you find out that you’d won the Pritzker?
Alejandro Aravena: It’s been a couple of weeks now. We’re still in kind of a state of shock.
Anna Winston: But you’ve been on the jury a few times previously…
Alejandro Aravena: Maybe that’s exactly why I didn’t see it coming. Having been in five deliberations and knowing the level of debate and the architecture, for me it was not even on the radar. I’m looking forward to the ceremony in April so I can have a little bit of an insider look from the jury. I haven’t talked to any of them yet, so I’m curious too.
Anna Winston: One of the things that was touched on in the citation is your approach to social projects with “participatory” design. Can you explain how that developed and what it means?
Alejandro Aravena: What our practice has been trying to do is maybe two main things. One is to have a starting point as far away from architecture as possible.
The starting point is problems that every single citizen understands; I mean insecurity in the city, pollution, segregation, congestion, the kind of things where your daily life is affected. Then you contribute with design to try to offer a possibility.
From the time I arrived to teach at Harvard 15 years ago, I was kind of dubious – I was kind of sceptical of architects trying to deal with problems that only interested other architects. The jargon, the way we talk about our issues, nobody except an architect understands. I guess that sense of irrelevance and isolation has always worried me.
Since my time at university I’ve been trying to understand if there was any connection between the thoughts and the ideas that we were being taught and the reality of everyday life of people. And of course there is, but you have to pick up from the body of knowledge of architecture the things that really matter. Not everything matters.
The other one would be how to be at the same time considering an expression of the time that you’re living in. You are aligned with the themes and the interests and the desires of that moment, and yet the answers that you deliver for those challenges [should be] timeless. That’s one of the things I’ve been always trying to look for – how to avoid being dated. What we build, it takes so much effort, so much money, so much energy. It would be a disaster if in 100 years looking backwards what you produced did not stand the test of time.
So there’s two things, on the one hand being sensitive and connected to the moment that you live in, and then responding to that with a proposal, with a design, that is able to stand the test of time.
Anna Winston: Do you think that scepticism you had 15 years ago is still relevant?
Alejandro Aravena: I would definitely say so. [You need] a reasonable scepticism. Not so sceptic that you become a cynic or a nihilist, but just looking at facts in a very cold-blooded way. That’s what I call scepticism, in the sense that you’re not just a hippy romantic trying to change the world. That’s necessary but it’s not enough.
On the other end, there is this desire to move things towards the best version, to try to achieve the potential embedded in the circumstances – not just a problem-solving response to a question. You’re trying to elaborate and open something that was not there in the circumstances that initiated the project.
Anna Winston: There has been a lot of discussion recently about whether architecture and architectural academia have become too inward looking.
Alejandro Aravena: By definition architecture is a collective practice. Unlike a sculptor who wakes up in the morning and decides to do a sculpture and does it, I do not wake up in the morning with an incredible desire to do an office building. Somebody has to need it. Architecture is an expression of needs and desires and forces that are outside yourself, be it a government, a private person or a community.
You don’t build your things with your own hands. You need to communicate even the very physical part of the practice, in that you give a set of instructions that somebody else has to interpret and also contribute to with different knowledges. I do not know everything. And your building is not your own building. The best thing that can happen to a building is that it has a life on its own. You will just create the beginning and then who knows where it’s going to end? So forget about control.
It is often said that beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. Australia-based photographer Peter Adams-Shawn has made a name for himself by capturing the reflections in wedding guests’ eyes. He took his first “eyescape” in 2011, and has been taking them consistently since 2014.
His work is so unbelievable that the head International Loupe Awards judge apologized to Adams for thinking it was a composite.
Adams-Shawn shared this tip with Techly: “One other secret – the best frames I’ve captured have had the subject smiling,” writes Adams-Shawn. “This relaxes the shot, brings natural creases in the eyes, and even this close, you can tell the subject is smiling.”
If you look closely, you’ll see Peter Adams-Shawn, and if you’ve already found him – you just unlocked his biggest secret…
In 2011, he was playing with reflections and captured his first “eyescape” of a young flower girl watching the bride do her hair
Son watches his Mum and Dad get married
His work is so unbelievable that ~10-15 percent of professional photographers in forums thought he used photoshop
Surprisingly, his photos are 100% real and not composites
Bride looks at her dress
Groom looks at his bride
Eduard Cîrstea (that’s kurr-stah) is an amateur photographer and noted feline enthusiast from Romania. When I say “noted”, I actually mean he never stops telling everybody about his ash-gray tomcat. So when his furry companion struck a pose during a spontaneous photoshoot, Eduard saw the opportunity to remind everyone that cats truly belong in classic paintings.
Be it enforcing censorship in Michelangelo’s “The Creation Of Adam” or crossing the Saint-Bernard pass alongside Napoleon in Jacques-Louis David’s “Bonaparte Crossing The Alps”, the feline hero always seems to play a pivotal part in whatever’s going on.
More info: eduardcirstea.ro
The Creation Of Adam – Michelangelo
The Milkmaid – Johannes Vermeer
American Gothic – Grant Wood
The Death Of Marat – Jacques-Louis David
This is how the Japanese stay warm in the winter, or how you can stay in bed all day! The kotatsu consists of a blanket placed between a low table-frame and table-top, with a heat source placed underneath the blanket. With your legs placed under the blanket, someone wearing traditional Japanese clothing would have warm air come through the bottom of their robes and exit around the neck, heating the whole body.
The origins of the kotatsu can be traced to the 14th century Japanese irori, or cooking hearth. By the 17th century, irori dug into the ground, called hori-gotatsu, resembled a fixed kotatsu. Modern kotatsu, which are moveable, are referred to as oki-gotatsu. Since most Japanese homes have little insulation, kotatsu serve as effective space heaters during the cooler months.
Image credits: Belle Maison
Image credits: Belle Maison
Image credits: Belle Maison
Images from NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft just released today show a backlit mountainous panorama of Pluto, displaying an amazing icy landscape never before seen by humans. Just 15 minutes after its closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015, the spacecraft looked back toward the sun and captured this near-sunset view of icy mountains reaching heights of 11,000 feet above flat ice plains extending to Pluto’s horizon.
As we start to retire our tank tops and dust the lint off our fall sweaters, the world’s top photography contests are busy announcing their winners. We’ve already seen the top shots from many of the biggest photo competitions, including the Washington Post Traveler, National Geographic Traveler and the Royal Observatory’s Astronomy Photographer of the Year contests. Latest in the lineup is the 2015 Wildlife Photographer of the Year contest, which just announced this year’s finalists.
Now in its 52nd year, the annual photography contest allows a wide range of photographers to showcase their best nature photos on a global level. Whether professional or hobbyist, young or old (there’s actually a specific category for photographers 17 and under), the contest only asks of photographers one thing: to capture the beauty and fragility of nature, while championing the highest ethical standards in wildlife photography.
If someone were to tell you that there was a gigantic hotel less than two hundred feet away from a beautiful beach that has never been used, would you believe them? Would you believe that such a massive hotel set in some of the most amazing surroundings has never seen a single guest? Well, if you would be willing to believe it, you’ll find it on the beautiful Reugen Island of Germany somewhere in the Baltic Sea. And when you find it, you will be truly surprised at just how massive this hotel is.
Stretching over three miles of beachfront property, this hotel is one of the largest in the world. So how is it that no guest has ever had a vacation stay in this behemoth? The answer lies in the origins of this hotel.
Construction of this colossal resort began in the year 1936. For anyone with the faintest knowledge of world history, you may suspect that this means the resort was built by the Nazis under the orders of Adolf Hitler (and you would be correct in this suspicion). The resort was designed and built by the Nazis as part of the “Strength through Joy” program, or “Kraft durch Freude” in German, with the intention of making it the “go-to” vacation spot of the National Socialist Party’s tired workers. At least three other similar sites were planned but never built since war broke out in 1939, before construction could even begin on these auxiliary sites. But not before construction of this site was finished. This hotel/resort was to be filled with Nazi propaganda and even include a dock for the “Strength through Joy” cruise line.
When war officially began in 1939, the hotel began to be used for military and war-effort purposes. It housed soldiers, refugees, and possibly even prisoners for various lengths of time. After the war ended, the entire resort was mostly abandoned and began falling into disrepair. In the time after the war but before German reunification, the structure was used by the East German Army for housing soldiers and other operations, but very little was done in the way of maintenance or improvements. Once the Berlin Wall came down and Germany was reunified, the resort was abandoned entirely and became a location for curious teenagers and young adults to explore and vandalize.
In the past few years at least, that seems to be the story. At museums, they’re swinging selfie sticks into priceless works of art and turning cathedrals of culture into amusement parks. At concerts, they’re blocking the views of fellow spectators and distracting the performers. At restaurants, photographers’ bad behavior has “reached epic proportions,” as diners stand on chairs and use appetite-spoiling flash to document their dishes. At vacation hubs, narcissistic, reckless tourists are turning historic sites into “photography props” for “a viral post on Facebook, Instagram or Twitter.”
Anxieties about damage to property, security, and copyright are prominent among those wringing their hands about photography in the digital age. And, of course, there are certain spaces where photography can do a lot of damage. Photographers can compromise national security by photographing details of structural components of bridges and tunnels, for example. They can pose threat to copyright by making high resolution images of intellectual property for duplication. Flash can damage old canvas and brazen, careless photographers can knock over valuables.
But those worries are separate from what seems to be going on today, namely an ideological concern that photographers are not fully experiencing what’s in front of them. “People taking photographs of their food in a restaurant instead of eating it. People taking photographs of the Mona Lisa instead of looking at it. I think the iPhone is taking people away from their experiences,” photographer Antonio Olmos told the Guardian in 2013, expressing a common sentiment among those condemning popular modern photography patterns.
Those who share Olmos’ view tend to express it by enacting restrictions or outright bans on photography in a variety of spaces. In New York, restaurants including Momofuku Ko in New York, and Chef’s Table at Brooklyn Fare have forbidden photography. At Grenouillere in northern France, Chef Alexandre Gauthier justified a photo ban to the Daily Mail this way: “I would like people to be living in the present. Tweet about the meal beforehand, tweet about it afterwards, but in between, stop and eat.”
Before a series of concerts at the Hammersmith Appolo last year, singer Kate Bush wrote a note to her fans on her website asking them to refrain from taking photos: “I very much want to have contact with you as an audience, not with iPhones, iPads or cameras. I know it’s a lot to ask but it would allow us to all share in the experience together.” In the past few years, other artists, including the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Prince, and She & Him have banned photos, or strongly requested that none be taken. Savages requested no cameras at performances with this note: “Our goal is to discover better ways of living and experiencing music. We believe that the use of phones to film and take pictures during a gig prevents all of us from totally immersing ourselves. Let’s make this evening special.”
According to journalist Rupert Christiansen, photography was banned in almost all museums and galleries 20 years ago; only in the past few years have museums started to change their policies. While concerns about safeguarding the artwork have often been a justification, Jonathan Jones, writing in the Guardian earlier this year, typified the more puritanical argument about when he called photography a “spiritual menace” that disrupts the idea of a museum as “place of calm contemplation.” “Modern tourists, it seems, cannot enjoy looking at art without photographing it, and themselves in front of it. The camera has become a prosthesis for looking,” he wrote. “We don’t need to concentrate on works of art and remember them: a smartphone can do that for us.” (Jones reversed his position a month later.)
Anyone who’s sat in a restaurant, attended a concert or visited a museum knows that photography in public places can be disruptive, distracting, and downright rude. But it’s time to do away with bans, some photography experts argue. Not only are they ineffective, but they fail to recognize modern notions of how photography relates to people and places.
Banning photography in an age where there are more cameras than ever is not just misguided, it’s a near impossibly says Stephen Mayes, Executive Director of the Tim Hetherington Trust. “I don’t see how there can be more restrictions on photography really, simply because the visual image is being so integrated into so many places,” he tells American Photo.
According to data from the now defunct website 1000Memories, photo taking has exploded since the turn of the millennium. In 2000, it estimated about 86 billion photos were taken a year. By 2012, that estimate jumped to more than 380 billion photos, and the following year, Yahoo! estimated that 880 billion photos would be taken in 2014. Last month, the Times claimed one trillion photos will be taken this calendar year alone. Since wearable cameras like the Narrative Clip, which automatically snaps an image every 30 seconds, have been introduced, and as they grow in popularity, the number of photos is sure to skyrocket further.
Museum officials have start to come around to the idea that photographs simply can’t be stopped. “You are fighting an uphill battle if you restrict,” Nina Simon, director of the Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History, told ARTnews’ Carolina A. Miranda.
“Even in the most locked-down spaces, people will still take pictures and you’ll still find a million of these images online. So why not support it in an open way that’s constructive and embraces the public?”
In 2010, the Museum of Arts and Design followed MoMA and other New York institutions when it lifted its ban. “In an age of blogs, iPhones, Facebook, and WikiLeaks, MAD realized that we could not control the dissemination of images the way we had in the past,” the museum’s director of public affairs, Marisa Bartolucci, told Hyperallergic. This year saw more longstanding holdouts follow suit, including Paris’ Musée d’Orsay.
Those who defend photography bans in museums frequently site Fairfield University psychologist Linda Henkel’s study about “photo-taking impairment effect,” which found that taking a photo of something makes people less likely to remember it. Her evidence is compelling but beside the point, Mayes says. By taking photos at museums and other places, people aren’t trying to remember an experience, they are trying to experience it through images. And when they relay that experience later, the image is not used to trigger a memory, it is the memory. Miranda makes a similar argument: “Twenty years ago, a museumgoer might have discussed an interesting work of art with friends over dinner. Today, that person is more likely to take a picture of it and upload it to Facebook.”
At that moment, around the middle of the last century, emerged a new movement of photorealism, not only approximating the visual fidelity that a camera could capture, but in certain cases, until recent technological developments, even surpassing its limits. The name Chuck Close may come to mind, particularly for photographers familiar with his later work in daguerreotypes. But among the leading figures driving and setting the bar of the movement was Richard Estes, whose exhibition “Painting New York City,” on view at the Museum of Art and Design through Sept. 20, 2015, dives into his process over five decades of urban photorealism through fascinating source photographs, proofs, and art-making tools.
According to curator Patterson Sims, what sets Estes apart is that he is not simply copying the photographs he makes himself, which we get to see here for the first time; he doesn’t overlay a grid and transfer information onto the canvas block by block like his contemporaries. His paintings are “depicted in a way that we’d call photographically precise, but Richards not a photorealist painter, he’s a photo-derived painter,” Sims says. “He uses them as an impressionist painter might use the landscape.”
Luis Alfredo Garavito
First and most deadly, Luis Alfredo Garavito preyed on young Colombian boys in the 80s and 90s. When finally tried in 1999, he was convicted of the murder of 140 out of 306 alleged cases. Almost all of Garavito’s victims were homeless boys from the age of 8 to 16. Oh, and he should be up for release in about 10 years. Yes, you’ve read that right– Garavito’s crimes netted him a cool 1,853 years in prison, but in certain cases (including this one), Colombia limits prison sentences for murder to 30 years maximum. Garavito has stated that he plans to run for political office and start a foundation to “help abused children”. He is an expert, after all.
Betty White has not too long ago re-emerged as a cultural icon due to her sharper-than-age wit and feisty demeanor–but it isn’t the first time The united states has fallen in really like with the 93-calendar year-outdated product, actress, and author.
These classic photographs show Betty White in her element in the late 1950’s. A Grammy and Emmy award-winner, White even now captures the admiration of the general public, and the motives why are made clear in this quote:
When it comes to auto exhibits and occasions in the Uk, a few could pop into your head pretty rapidly. Goodwood, Silverstone, Autosport International…in reality we’ve personally coated Goodwood Festival of Speed for the earlier few years as effectively as Silverstone Traditional in 2013, amongst others.
But there are lots of lesser-identified motoring events in the Uk that really do not get as much protection as they probably need to. As element of Cherished Car Insurance’s Guide to Britain’s Vintage Activities and Drives map, I’ll submit 1 of my possess favorites:
Wings & Wheels. It’s an yearly celebration held at Dunsfold Aerodrome in Surrey, England, which some of you may recognize as the area for the popular Leading Equipment test observe and studio. It’s also been in really a number of movies like On line casino Royale and The da Vinci Code. Wings & Wheels have been around since 2005 and up to 2013 they’ve aided increase over £280,000 (about $ 430,000) for charities including Brooklands Museum and Help for Heroes. In 2014, a record 40,000 folks came to the function, which was their tenth year.
It’s a proper family members event, way too – in addition to the five hour air show and 2 hour motoring show, they have a stunt zone, which of course involves airtime and fire and other amazing things, a kid’s zone with online games, simulators and a engage in spot, a army zone and parade with excursions of plane, and of training course hundreds of amazing autos to gawk at and look at on parade. In a natural way there’s masses of meals, merch, a fairground spot, and live music.
Wings & Wheels is a two-working day celebration, and is open up from 9am – 9pm every single August. For 2015 it is August 29th & thirtieth, and costs have went up a tiny given that final 12 months – if you purchase in advance of time working day tickets are £22 for grown ups and £7 for youngsters, or you can decide up a family ticket (two grown ups and 3 youngsters) for £50. A lot more details on tickets are over here.
Do you think that beaches are blasé tourist destinations with nothing unique or interesting to offer? Well, you’re only partly correct. Many of them are over crowded and boring, but none of the beaches we feature here will disappoint. A singing beach, a glowing beach, a beach with rainbow-colored sand — here are the most offbeat seaside destinations you’ll find on Earth.
1. Glass Beach
Location: Hanapepe, Kauai, Hawaii
What’s so special about it: Though it’s regular rock is basalt, the Glass Beach in Kauai is blanketed with millions of sea glass particles which came from years of discarded glass washed up on shore. Similar beaches include Fort Bragg and Benicia, which are both in California. Source
2. Green Sand Beach
Location: Papakolea Beach/Mahana Beach, South Point, Ka’u, Hawaii
What’s so special about it: Thanks to the mineral olivine, which comes from the nearby cinder cone, this peculiar beach sparkles a brilliant green. It’s only one of the four beaches in the world with bright green sand, the others being Talofofo Beach, Guam, Punta Cormorant on Floreana Island in the Galapagos Islands, and Hornindalsvatnet, Norway. Source
3. Hot Water Beach
Location: East coast of the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand
What’s so special about it: Drive down to this beach armed with a shovel, because the best thing to do here is to dig your very own DIY spa. This geothermal beach can get as hot as 64°C (147°F), its heated water spouting from two nearby underground springs. Check out their website for updates on the water conditions before you drop by. Source
4. Tunnel Beach
Location: Dunedin, New Zealand
What’s so special about it: After trekking across a private farmland, beach-goers must pass this long creepy tunnel to get to the actual beach. On the other side are beautiful sandstone cliffs, rock arches, caves, and other stunning rock formations against the backdrop of the magnificent Pacific Ocean. Source
5. Star Sand Beach
Location: Irimote Island, Japan
What’s so special about it: Visitors of the star sand beaches of Irimote Island and neighboring islands in southern Japan are more often seen crouched over the sand, examining the curiously-shaped particles on their hands. Star sand are actually exoskeletons of foraminiferans (microscopic marine organisms) which have washed up by the millions for years on the island’s shores. Those who look closely enough might find some that are still alive. Source
6. Singing Beach
Location: Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts, USA
What’s so special about it: Before you get carried away by your imagination, the sounds coming from the friction between the grains of sand in this beach are actually more of the creaky, squeaky kind than the melodic, symphonic type, which is probably how you imagine it. Though you might call this false advertising, the experience is still one-of-a-kind. That Singing Beach is still one of of North Shore’s most popular attractions attests to that. Source
7. A sandy beach in the middle of a meadow
Location: Playa De Gulpiyuri, Llanes, Spain
What’s so special about it: If you’re walking in a meadow and suddenly find yourself in a beach, it’s likely you’ve come to Playa De Gulpiyuri. Though the ocean is nowhere in sight, the beach is actually connected by a network of intricate underground waterways to the Atlantic where its water is sourced. Source
8. Pink Sand Beach
Location: Harbour Island, Bahamas
What’s so special about it: Eroded particles from red corals across the eastern coast of the Bahamas have washed to shore to give the powdery sand of Harbor island a pinkish glow. If you’re a fan of pink, this beach is the way to go. Source
9. Purple Sand Beach
Location: Pfeiffer Beach, Big Sur, California, USA
What’s so special about it: Another cute-colored sand beach is found in Big Sur, California. The purple tint of the sands of Pfeiffer Beach comes from its dominant mineral quartz combined with manganese garnet deposits found in the surrounding rocks. Source
10. Bioluminescent Beach
What’s so special about it: It’s an ocean of stars! Bioluminescent phytoplankton, which glows when agitated, can be found in many shores all over the world, but it seems they’re found more often in Maldives. This amazing photo was taken by Taiwanese photographer Will Ho. Source
11. Beach of the Cathedrals
Location: Playa de las Catedrales/Praia de Augas Santas, Ribadeo, Spain
What’s so special about it: Magnificent geological formations form a cathedral-like effect across this idyllic beach in Spain. The beach can only be easily accessible during low tide. Source
12. Bowling Ball Beach
Location: Schooner Gulch State Beach, Mendocino County, California, USA
What’s so special about it: Large spherical rocks, like over-sized bowling balls, are scattered across the shore of this beach in Schooner Gulch. The boulders are said to have been caused by millions of years of erosion and “concretion” a rare geologic phenomenon also observed in the Moeraki and Koutu Boulders in New Zealand and Cannonball River in North Dakota. Source
13. Maho Beach
Location: Saint Martin Island, Sint Maarten
What’s so special about it: With the beach’s location adjacent to the Princess Juliana International Airport, vacationers can actually jump up and touch a flying airplane. Source
14. Schoolhouse Beach
Location: Washington Island, Wisconsin, USA
What’s so special about it: If you like beaches but absolutely hate sand sticking to your feet and getting everywhere else, you’ll love Schoolhouse Beach. Instead of icky sand, it’s covered in smooth limestone rocks that were glacier-polished for thousands of years. Each small rock is a geologic treasure that anyone caught trying to take one home has to pay a steep fine. Source